[96] He asked Belgrano to help the Cabildo with the work, as his intervention would be seen by the crowd as a guarantee that their demands would not be ignored. [80] He asked for allegiance to King Ferdinand VII, but popular unrest continued to intensify. [76] After a short private discussion with Caspe, Cisneros reluctantly gave his consent. Find event and ticket information. [84] Rumors of police censorship spread quickly; Morante ignored the request and performed the play as planned. The cities of Rosario (Santa Fe), Junín (Buenos Aires) and Resistencia (Chaco) have eponymous squares. May. [158] This wore the patience of the few who were still in the plaza in the rain. [157] Meanwhile, the weather improved and the sun broke through the clouds. [84] Manuel Belgrano gave the following Monday as the deadline to confirm the open cabildo before taking direct action. 25 de Mayo: National Day. [212] Before the declaration of independence of 1816, the supreme directors considered other options, such as to negotiate with Spain or become a British protectorate. [114] His intention was to keep Cisneros in power by delaying any possible action. [149] Leiva and Lezica requested that someone who could act as spokesman for the people should join them inside the hall and explain the people's desires. [61] On May 25, 1809, the Chuquisaca Revolution deposed Ramón García de León y Pizarro as Governor of Chuquisaca and replaced him with Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales. Anniversary of the First Independent Government in Buenos Aires. [186] Most of the cities and provinces had distinctive populations, economies, attitudes, contexts, and interests. [93] They learned the result of the meeting with Cisneros, but were unsure as to whether Cisneros intended to keep his word. [108] The main themes of the debate were the legitimacy of the government and the authority of the Viceroy. The fact that Spain aided the colonies in their struggle against Britain weakened the idea that it would be a crime to end one's allegiance to the parent state. The following table lists the date and name for select national holidays in countries around the world. The following are the national public holidays and other observances of Argentina. One of the speakers for the first position was the bishop of Buenos Aires, Benito Lue y Riega, leader of the local church, who said: Not only is there no reason to get rid of the Viceroy, but even if no part of Spain remained unsubdued, the Spaniards in America ought to take it back and resume command over it. [142] However, there is no unanimous view among historians about the authorship of the document. [172], Montevideo, which had a historical rivalry with Buenos Aires, opposed the Primera Junta and the Council of Regency declared it the new capital of the Viceroyalty, along with Francisco Javier de Elío as the new Viceroy. [18] This situation damaged the viceroyalty, as Spain's economy was not powerful enough to produce the huge supply of goods that the numerous colonies would need. [155] But, because of the late hour and the weather, the number of people in the plaza had declined. [162] However, it faced several internal conflicts. [24] In most cases, the appointees had little knowledge of or interest in local issues. [85] Leiva would later act as a mediator, being both a confidante of Cisneros and a trusted negotiator for the more moderate revolutionaries. 2016. [25] This was in part because the clergy controlled the entire educational system in Spanish America, which led the population to hold the same conservative ideas and follow the same customs as in Spain. [152] The Cabildo still refused to give up, until the noise of the demonstration was heard in the hall. Mon, May 25: National Day/May 1810 Revolution National Holiday: Wed, June 17: Commemoration of General Don Martín Miguel de Güemes National Holiday: Sat, June 20: ... Argentina holidays in 2019. [125] His proposal had nearly 30 votes. [153] They feared that the demonstrators could overrun the building and reach them. [185] This idea held that, in the absence of a legitimate authority, the people had the right to appoint their own leaders. [137] There was a meeting at Rodríguez Peña's house. [114] He said "...there shall be no doubt that it is the people that create authority or command. [87] To prevent this, they took command of the grenadiers that guarded the Fort and seized the keys of all entrances while meeting with the Viceroy. [110] There was also a third position, taking the middle ground. May 25 is Argentina’s National Day, also known as First Government Day. [141], On the morning of May 25, in spite of bad weather,[142] a crowd gathered in the Plaza de la Victoria, as did the militia led by Domingo French and Antonio Beruti. [201], The May Revolution was not the product of the actions of a single political party with a clear and defined agenda, but a convergence of sectors with varying interests. [36][37] Britain, which had a strong influence in the politics of the Portuguese Empire, opposed the project as well: they did not want Spain split into several kingdoms, and considered Carlota Joaquina unable to prevent this. [17] The newspapers reported that some of the former members of the Junta had taken refuge on the Isla de León in Cadiz. [168] The cities of the Upper Peru, however, did not take a position, owing to the recent outcomes of the Chuquisaca and La Paz Revolutions. [10] The Napoleonic Wars with France made this a difficult task, after Napoleon imposed the Continental System, which forbade his allies and conquests to trade with Britain. [120], Manuel José Reyes stated that he found no reason to depose the Viceroy, and that it would be enough to appoint a junta headed by Cisneros. [21] Most local authorities allowed this smuggling as a lesser evil, even though it was illegal, and it occasionally equalled in volume the legal commerce with Spain. On this day, 201 years ago, thirty three congressmen gathered in Tucuman, Argentina and declared it … These dates may be modified as official changes are announced, so please check back regularly for updates. [128] Cornelio Saavedra, whose aforementioned proposal was that the Cabildo should appoint a Junta and rule in the interim, got the largest number of votes. [22] Two antagonistic factions emerged: the landowners wanted free trade so they could sell their products abroad, while the merchants, who benefited from the high prices of smuggled imports, opposed free trade because prices would come down. [95] Saavedra was at the barracks at that moment, concerned about the demonstration. [28][29][30] The Patricios Regiment, led by Cornelio Saavedra, was the biggest criollo army. Popular upcoming holidays you may … [147] They considered that the crowd had no legitimate right to influence something that the Cabildo had already decided and implemented. Most of the information was properly recorded at the time and was made available to the public by the Primera Junta as patriotic propaganda. [76] Juan Florencio Terrada, commander of the Infantry Grenadiers, joined them, because their barracks were located under Cisneros' window, and his presence would not allow the Viceroy to request military aid to take Castelli and Martín Rodríguez prisoners. Historians today debate whether the revolutionaries were truly loyal to the Spanish crown or whether the declaration of fidelity to the king was a necessary ruse to conceal the true objective—to achieve independence—from a population that was not yet ready to accept such a radical change. [221] Thus, it would have the characteristics of a civil war instead. [140] Moreno refused any further involvement, but Castelli and Peña trusted that he would eventually join them if events unfolded as they expected. [140] He sent a resignation letter to the Cabildo for consideration on the following day. The Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, and the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it. [78], Not fooled by the Viceroy's communiqué, some criollos met at the houses of Nicolás Rodríguez Peña and Martín Rodríguez. [78] Saavedra commented to Lezica that he was suspected of betrayal because of his constant requests for cautious and measured steps. [28], The Liniers administration was popular among criollos, but not among peninsulars such as the merchant Martín de Álzaga and the Governor of Montevideo, Francisco Javier de Elío. [98] Demands for Cisneros' immediate resignation replaced those for an open cabildo. [65] However, he rejected economist José María Romero's proposal to banish a number of people considered dangerous to the Spanish regime, such as Saavedra, Paso, Vieytes, Castelli and Moreno, among others. Six years later, the representatives of all the Argentine provinces met and officially declared our independence on July 9, 1816. On that same day, May 25, the first new government was formed, but it was still under the influence of Spain since many of the members of the junta were Spanish descendents. Though … [88][102] All noteworthy religious and civilian people were present, as well as militia commanders and many prominent residents. Today, May 25 is a public holiday in Argentina that honors the Primer gobierno patrio or the First National Government. The Primera Junta was formed by representatives from Buenos Aires, who sent word to other cities in the viceroyalty and asked them to send deputies. [89], Castelli and Martín Rodríguez moved to the Fort for an interview with Cisneros. [38][39] The project was resisted by Viceroy Liniers, most peninsulars, and some criollos, including Cornelio Saavedra and the lawyers Mariano Moreno and Juan José Paso. [206][207][208][209] The Primera Junta did not pledge allegiance to the Council of Regency, which was still in operation, and in 1810 it still seemed unlikely that Napoleon would be defeated and Ferdinand returned to the throne (which finally happened on December 11, 1813, with the Treaty of Valençay). [195] Mitre regarded the May Revolution as an iconic expression of political egalitarianism: a conflict between modern freedoms and oppression represented by the Spanish monarchy, and an attempt to establish a national organization on constitutional principles as opposed to the charismatic authority of the caudillos. Napoleon Bonaparte's takeover of Spain sparked the May Revolution in Argentina. The result was the removal of Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and the establishment of a local government, the Primera Junta (First Junta), on May 25. [109] Its validity divided the assembly into two main groups: one group rejected it and argued that the situation should remain unchanged; this group supported Cisneros as Viceroy. [109] The debate tangentially discussed the rivalry between criollos and peninsulars; the Viceroy supporters felt that the will of peninsulars should prevail over that of criollos.[112]. [168] The Banda Oriental, under Francisco Javier de Elío, remained a royalist stronghold. [40], After the British invasion of 1806, Santiago de Liniers successfully reconquered Buenos Aires. There are departments of this name in the provinces of Chaco, Misiones, San Juan, Rio Negro and Buenos Aires, the latter holding the town of Veinticinco de Mayo. [61] He and the other leaders were later beheaded, and their heads were exhibited as a deterrent. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. [233], A representation of a cabildo is used on Argentine 25-cent coins,[234] and an image of the Sun of May appears on the 5-cent coin. [140] Chiclana felt encouraged when Saavedra resigned, and started to request signatures for a manifesto about the will of the people. [139] They explained that the population was on the verge of violent revolution and would remove Cisneros by force if he did not resign as well. [162] Despite the importance of Liniers himself, and his prestige as a popular hero for his role when the British invaded, the population of Córdoba preferred to support the revolution. Argentina gained its independence from Spain with the revolution of 1810. The public holiday is set by law 21.329 and is always celebrated on May 25, regardless of the day of the week. Liberal ideals in the political and economic fields developed and spread through the Atlantic Revolutions across most of the Western world. [32] Carlota Joaquina, sister of Ferdinand VII, was the wife of the Portuguese prince regent, but had her own political projects. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. To Peña 's house aired their political views argentina national day may 25 give way to calm demonstrators... 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